How did Manchester’s small Roman town become known as England’s industrial capital?
Manchester has historically been part of Lancashire, a county in the North West of England. That was until the 20th century when it became its very own county due to the vast size that the city had grown.
But first, what comes to mind when you think of Manchester? Is it the football, the shopping, the culture maybe the History?
With the National Football Museum finding its home in Manchester’s busy centre, it would be safe to say Manchester is known for its enthusiastic involvement with Football throughout the years. Manchester is among the most visited cities in the UK, and the local people embrace this with open arms.
But did you know that Manchester can trace its roots back to the Roman Invasion?
As a prime location for a northern garrison, the Romans built a sandstone bluff near the rivers Medlock and Irwell in 79AD. It is in this area that the first recorded settlement is noted since the Roman invasion.
Yet it was at the turn of the 19th century when Manchester expanded at an astonishing rate; this expansion was the cause of the Industrial Revolution.
The result made Manchester the first industrialised city in the world.
It was in 1853 that Manchester achieved the status of a City. It was on its way to gaining the “second” city status in the United Kingdom.
With the city’s growth and the notion of hard work, the Worker Bee became a Motif to represent the industry and people within the City.
Known for architecture, culture, music, media links, social impacts, sports clubs, transport connections and scientific and engineering outputs, Manchester is notable for its firsts.
Architecture – Thomas De La Warre, Lord of the Manor, founded and constructed a Collegiate church for the parish in 1421. This church is the Manchester Cathedral, and the College house is the Chetham’s School of Music and Chetham’s Library.
Chetham’s Library, opened in 1653, is the oldest free public reference library in the UK.
Media Links – Each year, Manchester City organises a Film Festival that lasts a week. It is a truly independent film festival committed and dedicated to sharing great stories from both new and established international and domestic filmmakers from the world of independent cinema. The organisation is proud of its honest and transparent roots. It will continue with the original ethos of selecting films from open submissions.
Manchester is home to Media City, an international hub for technology, innovation and creativity.
Social impact- Manchester’s Trafford Park was the world’s first industrial estate.
The centre of the Economic School of Manchester capitalism developed and the anti-corn law league from 1838.
Manchester seemed a place where anything could happen—
new industrial processes,
new ways of thinking (the Manchester School, promoting free trade and laissez-faire),
new classes or groups in society,
new religious sects,
and new forms of labour organisation.
Manchester’s first taste of the cotton industry is traced back to the 14th century with the Flemish weavers. Around 1750, pure cotton fabrics were being produced, and it had overtaken wool in importance.
The rivers in Manchester were made navigable in 1736; this opened roots for Manchester to get to the Mersey sea docks, creating an easier trade route from Manchester to the world.
Britain’s first wholly artificial waterway is the Bridgewater Canal. This amenity opened Manchester up to becoming the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the surrounding towns.
In 1780, Mr Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester’s first cotton mill. Shudhill Mill, which was located on Miller Street.
Manchester was dubbed “Cottonopolis” and “Wearhouse City.”
During the Industrial Revolution, Manchester expanded incredibly, and many industries developed.
The engineering companies which specialised in making cotton machinery diversified into the general manufacturing industry; the banking and insurance industries supported them.
Due to Manchester city’s cosmopolitan atmosphere, a vibrant Culture developed, creating the Golden Age for Manchester. Not everyone benefited from the Industrial Revolution’s wealth; much of the population suffered from poverty and squalor.
Manchester covered the extremes from having the super rich to the impoverished.
The peak of cotton mills was in 1853; Textile Tyons ran 108 mills along the Manchester hillside. After this, the number began to decline. T
his decline opened the way for the city to rise as the financial centre of the region.
But with great fame come the target for attacks. Manchester is not immune to terror attacks, and has suffered greatly; many affected businesses never recovered from trade loss.
Manchester suffered greatly during the great depression, resulting in many businesses moving from the area.
In the 1960s, larger sections of the city were demolished, re-developed, or modernised using glass and steel. Developers converted many old mills into apartments and office spaces.
After the Second World War, the cities’ fortune declined due to deindustrialisation. To add to this saddening news, on Saturday, 15th June 1996, a terrorist group known as the Provisional IRA installed a bomb in a lorry; this bomb ripped through Corporation Street in the centre of the city.
Great Britain had not had such a massive bomb attack since the end of the Second World War.
There were no fatalities thankfully; the emergency services had heeded the warning the IRA sent. They were able to evacuate 75,000 people from the area. The target was the infrastructure and economy not the people of Manchester.
The UK government and other agencies gave the city extensive investment, and it began to regenerate its infrastructure,
The opening of popular shopping, eating and entertainment areas increased the popularity of Manchester. Buildings like the printworks and corn exchange were renovated for this recreational use.
In 2002, the Commonwealth Games were hosted in Manchester.
The Arndale shopping centre is one of the United Kingdom’s largest city-centre shopping hubs and is a beacon for locals and tourist.
Today and the future
Manchester had recovered from its terror attack in the ’90s; the injection of investments made Manchester a hub for businesses in the north.
In 2017, a grievous attack occurred at the Manchester arena, after famous singer, songwriter and Actress Ariana Grande’s consert. This attack resulted in the death of 23 people, including children, and injuring countless others.
Though this tragic event, the people of Manchester bandded together; the symbol of the worker bee was rectrified again but it has became a figure against terrorism for Mancunians and the unity the cities people share with each other.
The people of Manchester have not let the terror attacks take away their pride in their city and they work hard to keep each other safe.
The city’s work has not gone unnoticed; the Manchester Chamber of Commerce host an Awards evening for the Building of the Year.
Manchester City has moved away from the cotton industry. However, you can see the importance it had in creating the modern city that Manchester is today.
why not join those who are happy to watch Manchester continue to change in the future.
When you think about dry stone walls and hedgerows, do you think of a quaint little cottage garden? maybe a barrier in a farmer’s field?
The popularity of these walls has increased over the years. Picket fences are not as popular as they once were.
What is it about these walls that are so attractive to gardeners.
what are the benefits of a dry-stone walls/hedges?
why are so many in walls in disrepair?
where can you learn the skills to build your own?
First, we need to know the background.
When you look around the landscape of Britain you can see a vast difference between the north and south.
The south being more fertile for growing vegetation and livestock, the ground is relatively flat with a mild weather; where as in the north the rugged terrain and harsh climate is more ideal for livestock.
Having livestock, you will need a way to keep them in. In the south, Farmer will grow hedgerows as a means of securing the land. With the mild climate the plants can grow quicker than the animals can eat them.
Now in the north copious quantities of stone are easily found close to the ground surface, its here you will find evidence of dry stone walls. The walls are found where trees and hedges are difficult to grow.
On lower ground where hedges could be grown, they take longer to mature and can be stunted if exposure to animals to early, the saplings and new growth could be eaten quicker than the plant can grow, making this method of security difficult to establish.
Once a stone wall is erected, it will remain until neglected or dismantled. The walls would need little upkeep, if build properly.
The materials were easy to get, this is the reason stone and hedges were used. Yearly maintenance checks would ensure the longevity of the walls and hedges.
Fact – when farmers/labours where building their stone walls, they would put a trinket or coin in-between the gaps as a time capsule.
Fact- Prince Charles hosted a hedgelaying competition on Highgrove estates, this allowed different skills to be exercised. More.
As the 21st century got underway, changes to farming where steadily increasing but the dry-stone walls and hedges where still the best security for the fields. When the first world war erupted in October 1914 many young men left to fight, but it was when the war continued that cause a strain on the country.
Skilled workmen where unable to pass on their skills to their apprentices resulting in the loss of the majority of the knowledge, in this loss was the skills of dry-stone walling and hedgelaying. The little knowledge that survived the war the reminding walls and hedges were able to be maintained.
In time, the preferred fencing for farmers and gardeners were wooden stakes and wire netting. Resulting in the neglect of the remaining walls and hedges, they fell into disrepair. Many walls are left as wind breakers for livestock and wife life, over time new boundaries were created making the wall null for purpose. While many hedgerows where removal and replaced, others were left to grow wild.
Benefits of dry stone walls and hedges
The benefits of having hedgerows and stone walls are that they are environmentally friendly, with there material being natural and not man made.
The result of having these walls are that they make a great wind break which is beneficial for all animals, in many case’s they are used by a variety of wild life and plants as habitats.
When you think of the British countryside are your first thoughts could be the animal, the lush green grass then the hedges and stone walls; If so you are not alone.
Stone walls and hedges have a desirable effect wherever you chose to put them.
Training in these heritage skills are hard to find, sympathetic works we are happy to help you gain theses skills.
Our aim is to save as much historic construction skills that is possible. So, we are happy to provide these skills to those who wish to learn. Check out our Course page to see what else we provide.
As a member of the Construction Development Alliance, we had the privilege to be in attendance for the Young Person in Construction (YPC) Awards, which was held at Burnley Mechanics on Thursday, the 25th of May, 2023.
Along with other members of the CDA, Sympathetic Works are delighted in being able to happy to support young people in their goal to reach higher and achieve more.
The Young Person in Construction Awards 2023 aims to support, congratulate and encourage young people to continue their construction pursuits. The CDA desires to recognise these young people’s daily work and let them know they are seen, recognised and appreciated.
These Awards give the CDA members the opportunity to work with the local communities to help support young people. The awards give us the chance to get together and celebrate the new professionals for their hard work and achievements.
There is a saying, “It takes a village to raise a child.” yet it takes a similar support system to build a lasting career. As construction professionals, we support all young people in making their careers in the construction industry today.
These awards are a way of supporting these young people.
Left to right – Max Colligan (Sika), Ben Hall (Overcoming Adversity), Abi Brierley (Young Construction Professional and Overall Winner), Laura Gregson (Stand in for Sam Gregson – Young Construction Designer), Holly Duffy (Young Construction Apprentice), Connor Lynch (Young Construction Environmentalist), Charlie Luxton (Guest Speaker), Reid Lewis (HDP) and Emily Millar (Hawthorn Estates LTD)
Young Designer – Sam Gregson Sponsored by Poole Dick
The CDA members, colleges, employers and their guests are immensely proud of all the winners of this year’s YPCA.
As a thank you for all their hard work, each winner received a certificate, trophy, and a personalised goodie bag to help them in their construction career.
A unique Award is held as a surprise for the night that Forbes Solicitors sponsored for the Overall Winner.
The Overall Winner for the YPCA 2023 was Abigale Brierley, who won the Young Construction Professional.
About the Evening
For each awards evening, there is a main sponsor who is important to the evening. As with the last few awards, the main sponsor was Sika.
It is with this help from Sika that the YPCA welcomed an extraordinary celebrity personality, Charlie Luxton. Charlie is known for his shows, such as Channel Four’s – Building the Dream – Alongside his TV Shows, Charlie is an architectural designer who writes and speaks about the environment and sustainable architecture.
As a way to give back and support young people in the northwest, the CDA selected a chosen charity for the YPCA 23 Awards night.
For 2023’s chosen charity, it was decided by the CDA member to support the Horsfall and 42nd Street, they aim to help young people with their mental health and well-being.
Through the last few years, a lot of young people have struggled, and Covid-19 has taken a massive toll on their self-esteem. Why not donate today using our event fundraiser page if you haven’t already? The CDA’s Justgiving page will continue to accept donations up until October 2023.
The evening started with a drinks canopy sponsored by Booth King Associates, which allowed the Members and guests a chance to network.
On the night, Abi Brierley, the Young Construction Professional and Overall Winner thanked those who supported her and added the wise words, “Whether it be an 18-year-old girl from Burnley, whether it be an apprentice, whether it be a graduate – Give them a chance, coz they might just be the future.”
For the evening charity, the CDA arranged sponsored hampers to be won as a thank-you to those who donated to the charity. Each hamper was supported by the companies listed below:
Congratulations to the new King and Queen of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth Realms.
On the 6th of May 2023, the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth and the rest of the World were invited to watch via TV broadcasting as King Charles III and Queen Camila (Queen Consort) were crowned as the new King and Queen of the UK and Commonwealth.
A symbolic formality, the coronation does not signify the official beginning of the monarch’s reign; their reign commences from the moment of the preceding monarch’s death (the death of the late Queen Elizabeth II), maintaining the legal continuity of the monarchy.
For some who have not researched or witnessed a Coronation before, the thought of a new ruler would be daunting. Yet for the UK and its commonwealth states, the King or Queen is not the head of a governing monarchy as seen in other countries.
What the Winsor family holds is the role of representing the country; the Sovereign and their family act as a focus for national identity, unity and pride.
The Winsor family’s part is to provide the people of the UK and Commonwealth a sense of strength and continuity, to officially recognise success and excellence, and to support the ideal of voluntary service.
Many can not remember the last time a monarch was crowned and the traditions accompanying the procedure. It had been reported that many practices would be adapted or removed as they no longer apply to the modern country.
There had been around 2,200 people that were invited to attend the coronation ceremony in person. This included members of the royal family, representatives of the Church of England and other Christian denominations, prominent politicians from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, foreign royalty, heads of state and heads of government.
The ceremony was broadcast live via TV Broadcasting centres and on social media, with the BBC reporting to have had a peak of 13.4 million; this figure fluctuated throughout the day.
The HE Team would like to congratulate King Charles and Queen Camila on their new roles, and they wish them the very best for the future.
Information on the Royal Family of the United Kingdom can be found on the official website. Click here.
What is the first thing that pops into your head when you think of cobbled areas? Is it the path leading to the church you attended when young? maybe the main shopping road in a small-town centre you visited?
More and more towns are ripping up the tarmac to reveal this craftsmanship.
With the assistance of the heritage lottery small towns known for their historic gems can get the financial support they need.
“Cobbles describes the smoother, more rounded stones that were fashioned by natural erosion or running water and were used uncut, as found” Robin Russell Director of Corbel Conservation Ltd.
The main material used for hard standing areas e.g. court yards, paths and road ways, for millennia were cobble stones. The humble cobble stone was kicked to the curb, as cheaper materials became more available.
The common misconception is that a sett are a form of cobbled road. Setts are commonly found were you have steeper streets, this is to help houses to climb the road ways easier.
A sett is a smooth quarried stone that is cut to shape. In this article Cobbles with refer to both setts and cobbles.
Popularity rose for smoother roadways the cobbled streets were removed or covered.
Viewed as inadequate to cope with modern life styles.
The knowledge of laying cobbled path and roadways disappeared when they were covered. This skill is largely lost with many other techniques.
Conservation is now more popular. The cobbled stone areas that have survived today are viewed by many as precious, and beneficial so safety on busy streets. the sound of an approaching vehicle can be heard louder on the cobbled streets, letting pedestrians know a vehicle is approaching.
But with revealing this material unearths the problems of keeping them maintained.
Maintenance of Cobbled areas
Taking care of our historic gems is very important as many have fallen into disrepair and resulted in damage.
When undertaking repair work on the cobbles you need to use the right materials. Both for the cobbles and the bedding; this is so that you can preserve as much of the original area as possible.
Note – Do not remove more then what is necessary, the goal is to keep the path looking original as much as possible. It is beneficial to taking notes, sketches and photographs before the work commences, this will limit damage.
Our goal is to use as much of the original stone and bedding as possible, with repairing in mind instead of replacement.
Any alterations and additions made should be reversible and case little to no harm to the original.
It is also advisable to document the process of the repair work, as a reference for future reflection. This will aid others who will continue the conservation work you conducted.
The appearance of the repair work should be almost invisible. Modern repairs once aged can add character and appeal in the same way as the historic stone.
A Gift to the Children of Rawtenstall – Local Free Man Richard Whitaker bought and donated Oak Hill House and its grounds for the Children of Rawtenstall as a place of recreation and learning.
On the edge of Rawtenstall perched just off Haslingden road is a house and a beautiful garden park. Many know this place as Whitaker Park.
We asked locals what comes to mind when they think about ‘The Whitaker’?
The common theme is the museum – that is found in the house. The people highlighted exhibitions such as the baby elephant, the snake and tiger, and the shrunken head.
Only a few people know the story of how this home became a much-loved museum.
In our research, it took time to get the history of this building.
What we found was working people who were proud and still are of their heritage. We see this pride in the care given to the grounds and house.
What was the original purpose of the house?
In prime location to overlook the Working Mill at New Hall Hey; known to us today as the grade II listed building Hardman’s Mill. The 1840’s family home was built; originally standing on a 28acre park, which held cottages and farms.
The Whitaker Park house was originally called Oakhill and was home for Major George Hardman (1794-1852) and his family.
Oakhill had been a family home until Richard Whitaker bought the house and grounds in 1900, he wanted to create a museum and public park for the children of Rawtenstall.
Mr Whitaker was born into poverty in 1829, one of thirteen he was working in Rawtenstall’s local mills at 6 years old. By the end of his career, he was a director of an Accrington company manufacturing mill machinery.
The museum and public park where gifted to the children of Rawtenstall in 1902. Many Local mill owners gifted Items for the Museum and gardens.
When Richard Whitaker died in 1906 he had seen the growth of knowledge among the children of the needy. Richard not only Donated the Park and the Museum but also donated money for Almshouses, exhibitions, scholarships and allowances to the needy in the area.
What is it now?
From that first museum opening in 1902 by Richard Whitaker, the house has stayed as Richard had set out.
Sadly, the house fell into disuse and in 2013 the Whitaker was brought back to life and transformed into the Rossendale Museum & Art Gallery. Under the leadership of the newly formed ‘Whitaker Group’, a journey began with the restoration and enhancement of this prized park.
The Whitaker Group are passionate that the aims of the museum remain true to its original 1902 declaration; to educate and enlighten the people of Rossendale, providing a focus for learning and cultural activity into the 21st Century.
The Whitaker house is now a privately owned business that runs the museum with a small café open Tuesday-Sunday 9.30am-5pm.
The Whitaker Park is owned and maintained by Rossendale Borough Council.
See what treasures the house has for you to learn from. Maybe enjoy a nice hot drink with a lovely view or a leisurely stroll around the park, the Whitaker is your place.
Dated around the 18th century when English weaving was at its height.
A three-story Stone building
The first and second floors have six large windows.
Built with two large floors with an open plan layout for working.
Access to the working floors was at the rear of the building.
What was the cottage originally used for?
The cottage name tells us that the main use was for Wool and/or silk weaving. Though known as the Weaver cottage, the main purpose of this building was the housing of the large loom machines, locally it could have been known as the loom shop.
Weaving was a trade common among the working people. Therefore the cottage work area’s were available to all the weavers in the province.
It seems like the designer had taken in the risks of this profession when they had planned this building. A good building design is necessary for specialised work.
You can see this in the used of windows so that the natural lighting would reduce the number of candles needed in the room, this will minimise the risk of possible fire. A fire was a major worry in the weaving business, just one spark could lose your livelihood and your home.
Some weavers employed their own or local children to assist with the weaving process as children could easily reach more difficult areas on the loom.
Until the introduction of the powered loom, this cottage would have been in constant use.
At the height of the industrial revolution, work in the mills was encouraged. With mills able to produce large quantities of fabric it became harder for those who worked in these cottages to earn a living.
As a result, the weaving profession began to be abandoned and more people began to work in the large cotton mills. Some of these mills can be found around Rawtenstall today, one is the Ilex mill next to the weavers cottage.
English weaving is a traditional skill among those in decline.
Resulting in the cottage workshop being left vacant, the large space was partitioned off to create homes. But, as more desirable homes were built, the weaver’s cottage again was empty.
Just outside The weavers cottage was the location of the first murder in Rossendale’s living history. The shocking murder of Nancy Chadwick in 1948. Find out more Click here.
What is it now?
In the 1970’s the area was under an urban renewal.
This council approved arrangement resulted in several old buildings being demolished.
The Rawtenstall Civics Society saved the cottage from being completely demolished. Unfortunately, the rear sloped roof was lost.
The civic society was able to restore the cottage to as much of its original format. Now using it as a heritage centre for the local area.
The cottage became a grade II listed building registered on the 16th October 1970. This gives the weavers cottage the status of a building of national importance and special interest.
Excited to buy a listed building, well hold on right there… Let’s stop and count the cost.
When buying a heritage building it can seem like a great investment yet it can be a drain on your purse if you’re not careful.
There are so many stories where people have gone and bought an old run down house, mill, or stables and they have transformed it back to it prime or in some cases better.
Hearing these stories it gives us a warm glow and a desire to do the same, but what we don’t hear is the cost of the projects, the mistakes that knock costing into the rafters.
So What about the cost? When you own a heritage building you better have money to burn. Yes, that’s right; it’s not a cheap thing owning an old building.
One homeowner found out the hard way.
A real costly experience
Renovating his heritage house a Gentleman went in search of a professional. The homeowner had not realised the magnitude of the skilled work that was needed to restore his listed home but was determined to save cost and do the prep work himself.
So what did the homeowner do…?
Well, he hired… His nephew… Yes, that’s right his nephew was hired to do the prep works.
The young lad had no skills in modern or traditional building work. So you can just imagine what disasters would befall.
For a while, all seemed to go well.
Dutifully the nephew got to work removing the rouble, upon doing this the young lad discovered plaster snot on the back of the wooden slats.
Now if you know anything about lath and plaster, you will know this is not a good idea. Why? let go on with the story.
So the nephew proud of his hard day’s graft, called his uncle to look at this now snot free cavity; can you imagine the joy on the homeowners face?
Happy with this prep work, the homeowner then called in the professional.
Call in the Professional
After seeing the snot free cavity the professional was in utter shock that the ceiling had not collapsed.
The plaster that had dripped over the back of the lath was a support keeping the plaster to the wall. And the nephew didn’t just do a small section; No, he did the whole ceiling.
Now, what could this homeowner do?
Thankfully the builder knew the skills to fix this problem.
Stabilising the ceiling required metal pins to be inserted every 30 meters.
This resulted in more expense than the original quotation.
The ceiling would never be as strong as it had once been but the homeowner can now rest soundly knowing the plaster would not crumble and collapse on him.
Skill = Quality
Many think they are saving money doing simple works themselves without the correct training but when it comes to traditionally built structures heritage skills and experience are a must.
For these skills and materials, they come at a cost.
Quality doesn’t come cheap, but it is cheaper than having to fix what didn’t need doing. A hard lesson to learn but it is all worth it in the end.
Now if you own a heritage building, work in the building industry or just interested in old buildings, take note there are courses you can attend to widen your skills. Learn to maintain Lath and Plaster, Understand lime and how to use it, or just basic heritage maintenance skills.
You can develop the skills to maintain your own heritage building.
Contractors should be check for training in the traditional skills.
Knowing you have the right people on the job will help you feel in control of your renovation.
And not end up with the possibility of your wall collapsing in.
If you are interested in learning more about tradition construction skill why not check out our courses page and see what is available for you. If you cant find anything then email us and see what we can do for you.
The story was shared by a member of the Traditional Plasters Guide who was the professional on the job.